Northwood Company manufactures basketballs. The company has a ball that sells for $35. At present, the ball is manufactured in a small plant that relies heavily on direct labor workers. Thus, variable expenses are high, totaling $21.00 per ball, of which 60% is direct labor cost.
Last year, the company sold 41,000 of these balls, with the following results:



Sales (41,000 balls) 
$ 
1,435,000 
Variable expenses 

861,000 


Contribution margin 

574,000 
Fixed expenses 

420,000 


Net operating income 
$ 
154,000 
Required:
1a. Compute the CM ratio and the breakeven point in balls.
1b. Compute the the degree of operating leverage at last year’s sales level.
2. Due to an increase in labor rates, the company estimates that variable expenses will increase by $2.80 per ball next year. If this change takes place and the selling price per ball remains constant at $35.00, what will be the new CM ratio and breakeven point in balls?
3. Refer to the data in (2) above. If the expected change in variable expenses takes place, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $154,000, as last year?
4. Refer again to the data in (2) above. The president feels that the company must raise the selling price of its basketballs. If Northwood Company wants to maintain the same CM ratio as last year, what selling price per ball must it charge next year to cover the increased labor costs?
5. Refer to the original data. The company is discussing the construction of a new, automated manufacturing plant. The new plant would slash variable expenses per ball by 30%, but it would cause fixed expenses per year to increase by 76%. If the new plant is built, what would be the company’s new CM ratio and new breakeven point in balls?
6. Refer to the data in (5) above.
If the new plant is built, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $154,000, as last year?
b1 Assume the new plant is built and that next year the company manufactures and sells 41,000 balls (the same number as sold last year). Prepare a contribution format income statement
b2 Compute the degree of operating leverage.