Essay. citations, intro, conclusion, outline all done!

Everything done, will provide pictures. I just need someone to out it into the correct format. 

This is the final draft of your individual research paper essay. 

1. Essay must be 7-8 pages typed, not including the works cited page. 

2. Essay must follow MLA format. 

3. Research must include a minimum of 8 sources, 4 of which must be from Library Databases: Proquest, CQ Researcher, Infotrac, Opposing Viewpoints, etc. 

4. Essay must have a complete Works Cited page that cross references correctly to all in-text citations. 

Note: Please submit your document with YOUR last name first. (Example: Schilf-Research-Paper-Final-Draft.pdf)

Research Paper: Topics/Thesis

1. Position Statement

Topic: Racism against African Americans

Thesis: In today’s society, people of color should have the freedom to live out their lives without having a target upon their back; the racism towards African American individuals has caused a dark history of hate, unlawful acts of crime, and injustices within our world which can be eliminated through education policies within every realm of society, from schools to the workforces.

Research Paper: Intro and Conclusion

A. It is 8 P.M. and you are walking home alone after a long afternoon of basketball practice.

You live in downtown Los Angeles, in not such a great neighborhood but you walk about

an hour and a half to get to school that provides you better opportunities. As you turn the

corner you notice a police car is trailing slowly behind you. You then notice they turn on

their lights and demand you to stop walking and put your hands up in the air. Feelings of

nervousness and confusion overcome you, being that you do not know what is happening

at this moment. The two officers approach and as you begin to remove your backpack

they instantly point their weapons at you. At this point, you have two officers threatening

to shoot you for no reason at all. The only crime you commited was being a black man

walking the streets at night. In today’s society, people of color should have the freedom

to live out their lives without having a target upon their back; the racism towards African

American individuals has caused a dark history of hate, unlawful acts of crime, and

injustices within our world which can be eliminated through education policies within

every realm of society, from schools to the workforces.

B. PROS (Points for support of your thesis) CONS (Points in response by opposition)

C. Now that the educational policies have been implemented within all aspects of society,

being a black man walking the street at night is no longer seen as a targeted individual.

School systems from K-12th grade have integrated the education regarding how African

Americans were and still are treated in the United States. The colleges and universities

require a GE to be taken regarding the history of racism, as well as the workplace having

to provide mandatory training on how racism is not acceptable. These mandated policies

1. K-12

– Easily implemented into grade

school curriculum

– Children will grow up with the

proper morals in regards to

how to avoid racial actions

2. College and Universities

– Mandatory classes to fulfill GE

requirements must be taken on

courses discussing the history

of racism

3. Workplace

– Having mandatory training

will allow individuals to

become aware of how racism

is not tolerated within the

workforce

1. Cost of new educational policies

– Taxpayer money will have to

be utilized

– Raise in taxes

2. Less focus on core subjects

– With more time being focused

on the new curriculum, it will

take away from subjects such

as math and english

3. Increase in expenses for employees

– The mandatory training will

lead to more money being put

into company rather than gain

revenue

C. Now that the educational policies have been implemented within all aspects of society,

being a black man walking the street at night is no longer seen as a targeted individual.

School systems from K-12th grade have integrated the education regarding how African

Americans were and still are treated in the United States. The colleges and universities

require a GE to be taken regarding the history of racism, as well as the workplace having

to provide mandatory training on how racism is not acceptable. These mandated policiesallow you to be an individual who is free to live their lives without a constant target upon

their back. As a black man, you no longer have to fear for your life every time you are

approached by an officer, or a racist, due to the fact that there are now policies which

have educated individuals on how racism is not tolerated within society

PRO / CON LIST (Problem & Solution)

Topic: Racism against African Americans

Thesis: In today’s society, people of color should have the freedom to live out their lives without

having a target upon their back; the racism towards African American individuals has caused a

dark history of hate, unlawful acts of crime, and injustices within our world which can be

eliminated through education policies within every realm of society, from schools to the

workforces.

The Problem: People of color are constantly faced with racism within their lives, from hateful

acts to injustices brought upon by systemic racism.

The Solution: In order to diminish the racism which African American individuals face on a day

to day basis, policies need to be passed which will enforce new educational opportunities within

all grade level schools from preschool up until college, as well as mandatory training within the

workplace for all elements of work.

PROBLEM

1. Residential segregation

– Black and white segregation within American is primarily a result of public

policies designed to subjugate African American individuals, while promoting

white supremacy.

2. Concentrated poverty found in schools

– The wealth gap between African Americans and Whites leads middle class

African Americans families to live in concentrated poverty, therefore their child

attends high-poverty schools.

3. Wealth Inequality

– African American households have far less access to tax-advantaged forms of

saving due to the fact that they face employment discrimination.

4. Systemic racism in education systems

– Within grades K-12, when African American students and White students commit

similar infractions, black students are three times more likely to be suspended and

expelled when compared to white students.

5. Systemic racism in healthcare

– Organizations discriminate individuals based on their insurance status, which

disproportionately impacts non-white populations.

6. Police brutality

– African American individuals are 2.5 times more likely than White men to be

killed by police officers within their lifetime.

PROS (Points for support of your thesis) CONS (Points in response by opposition)

1. K-12

– Easily implemented into grade

school curriculum

– Children will grow up with the

proper morals in regards to

how to avoid racial actions

2. College and Universities

– Mandatory classes to fulfill GE

requirements must be taken on

courses discussing the history

of racism

3. Workplace

– Having mandatory training

will allow individuals to

become aware of how racism

is not tolerated within the

workforce

1. Cost of new educational policies

– Taxpayer money will have to

be utilized

– Raise in taxes

2. Less focus on core subjects

– With more time being focused

on the new curriculum, it will

take away from subjects such

as math and english

3. Increase in expenses for employees

– The mandatory training will

lead to more money being put

into company rather than gain

revenue

ARGUMENTATIVE RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE TEMPLATE

INTRODUCTION

Title: The end to racial disparities against African Americans in America

O.S. (Opening Strategy): It is 8 P.M. and you are walking home alone after a long afternoon of

basketball practice. You live in downtown Los Angeles, in not such a great neighborhood but

you walk about an hour and a half to get to school that provides you better opportunities. As you

turn the corner you notice a police car is trailing slowly behind you. You then notice they turn on

their lights and demand you to stop walking and put your hands up in the air. Feelings of

nervousness and confusion overcome you, being that you do not know what is happening at this

moment. The two officers approach and as you begin to remove your backpack they instantly

point their weapons at you. At this point, you have two officers threatening to shoot you for no

reason at all. The only crime you commited was being a black man walking the streets at night.

In today’s society, people of color should have the freedom to live out their lives without having

a target upon their back; the racism towards African American individuals has caused a dark

history of hate, unlawful acts of crime, and injustices within our world which can be eliminated

through education policies within every realm of society, from schools to the workforces.

Thesis: In today’s society, people of color should have the freedom to live out their lives without

having a target upon their back; the racism towards African American individuals has caused a

dark history of hate, unlawful acts of crime, and injustices within our world which can be

eliminated through education policies within every realm of society, from schools to the

BODY

P1 — Racism towards African Americans has been rooted in American history, yet never

thoroughly explained or justified.

 A. Evidence 1 — Thomas Huxley, a British biologist, gave lectures to promote the

acceptance of evolution. In a book he published in 1872, Huxley stated “It may be quite true that

some negroes are better than some white men; but no rational man, cognizant of the facts,

believes that the average negro is the equal, still less the superior, of the average white man.

And, if this be true, it is simply incredible that, when all his disabilities are removed, and our

prognathous [having a projecting lower jaw] has a fair field and no favor, as well as no

oppressor, he will be able to compete successfully with his bigger-brained and smaller-jawed

rival, in a contest which is to be carried on by thoughts and not by bites.”

i. Response — In 1872, African Americans were seen as lower beings and unable to be

known as equal to white individuals. Thomas Huxley described African Americans as being less

capable of being seen as higher up or equal to whites due to the fact that they have lower jaws

and smaller brains. This holds significance due to the fact that the idea of racism was present in

science in the year 1872.

B. Evidence 2 —Ernst Haeckel, a German biologist, wrote to sway individuals to accept

evolution. Haeckel wrote a book in 1874 titled The Evolution of Man, where he stated “Apes, on

the contrary, can grasp in this way with the hind-foot as well as the fore-foot, and were therefore

regarded as four-handed. Many tribes, however, among the lower races of men, especially many

negro tribes, use the foot in the same way as the hand.”

i. Response — In 1874, scientists believed their findings depicted African Americans as

being more closely related to apes rather than humans. This is extremely dehumanizing within society due to the fact that African Americans are human beings and not animals, therefore they

should not be treated or referred to as anything less of a human being.

C. Evidence 3 — In 1914, the American Book Company published a high school

textbook titled A Civic Biology, which became the best-selling biology textbook in the United

States. This textbook discussed the subject of the famous Scopes “monkey trial.” In the evolution

section it states “At the present time there exist upon the earth five races or varieties of man,

each very different from each other in instincts, social customs, and, to an extent, in structure.

There are the Ethiopian or negro type, originating in Africa; the Malay or brown race, from the

islands of the Pacific; the American Indian; the Mongolian or yellow race, including the natives

of China, Japan and the Eskimos; and finally, the highest type of all, the Caucasians, represented

by the civilized white inhabitants of Europe and America.”

i. Response — The evidence given is portrayed to be a hierarchy within biology that

ranks races from highest to lowest. This demonstrates how racism was a prominent role in

society’s history, being that in 1914 African Americans were still displayed as being less

superior than any other race.

P2 — The educational system has displayed insignificant efforts to enable African Americans to

succeed.

A. Evidence 1 — Among high school students who graduated in 2019 and took the

ACT college readiness exam, only 11% of African Americans met the ACT’s college

readiness benchmarks in at least three of the four subjects.

i. Response — This statistic is a direct demonstration of how the education system has

failed to prepare African American students for their next chapter in life, being attending the

college of their choice.ferent racial and ethnic groups,

the rates of college enrollment were the lowest for African Americans compared to other

races, being that they had a 65% rate while other races obtained a 80-75%.

i. Response — This evidence is a prime example of how the opportunities for African

Americans are far less abundant compared to other races. In order to change this factor,

educational systems need to have equal opportunities presented for all students.

C. Evidence 3 — Among full-time, new college students who entered a 4-year college

in 2019, only 30% of African American students graduated within the four years.

i. Response — The evidence depicted shows how college programs do not fully aid nor

support African American students to allow them to graduate on time.

P3 — African Americans are significantly affected by the type of income they are able to attain

to support themselves, as well as their families.

A. Evidence 1 — In 2019, the median reported household cash incomes of different

races and ethnicities in the U.S. found that African Americans obtained the lowest income,

when compared to White, Asian, and Hispanic individuals.

i. Response — This finding is important due to the fact that it is a direct implication that

African American individuals are not given the same opportunities as other races, which leads to

an insufficient amount of income being obtained.

B. Evidence 2 — In 2017, the median reported household cash incomes for U.S.

households of different races, ethnicities, and marital or family statuses demonstrated that

families headed by single African American males was $58,000 compared to $88,000 for

White males.Response — This is a very significant finding because the income gap is so large

between African American males and White males, which poses the question as to why this is

the case.

C. Evidence 3 — In 2019, the median reported cash earnings full time workers in the

U.S. aged 25 and older with different levels of formal education, races, and ethnicities found

that White individuals obtain $40,000, while African Americans obtain $28,000.

i. Response — The evidence indicates that race is the only differential factor between

Whites and African Americans due to the fact that both individuals only obtained a high school

diploma, which demonstrates the racial inequality within an economic sense.

P4 — Due to the lack of structure and support within predominantly African American

communities, these individuals factor into the elements of violence and crimes, however

systemic racism plays a huge role in the sentencing of the individuals.

A. Evidence 1 — In the U.S. within the past two decades, African Americans

comprised 13% of the total population, 52% of murder perpetrators in cases where law

enforcement identified the race of the culprit, 42% of the death row population, and 32% of

death penalty executions.

i. Response — The evidence given demonstrates how corrupt the criminal justice system

is, being that African Americans are significantly targeted to be seen as criminals right off the

bat and given the most lengthy or detrimental sentencing.

B. Evidence 2 — In a 2015, author Patricia Williams Lessane, the director of the

Avery Institute of Afro-American History and Culture at the College of Charleston, South

Carolina, described several murders to be interracial, being that White people murdered

African Americans based solely off of their race.i. Response — The evidence of White individuals killing African Americans solely based

off of the color of their skin poses such a huge detrimental factor to society, being that it

continues the development of the hierarchy power White individuals believe to obtain.

C. Evidence 3 — In every year from 1980 to 2018, murders of African Americans by

White people have been about two-to-three times more common than vice-versa.

i. Response — The statistic given shows how racism has been present in society without

any true reform or change to provide the safety to African Americans within their everyday lives.

P4 — Police brutality and criminal injustice among the African American community is one of

the most detrimental aspects of simply being an African American individual, without even

committing a crime.

A. Evidence 1 — Trayvon Martin, a 17-year-old black teen, was shot and killed by a

neighborhood watch volunteer named George Zimmerman, who is half-white, half-Hispanic,

and partially black in 2012. George Zimmerman was found not guilty of second degree

murder by a grand jury.

i. Response — This fatal killing was what emerged the Black Lives Matter Movement to

be created. Trayvon Martin was deemed “dangerous” and “suspicious” for being black and

walking the street at night. The grand jury finding George Zimmerman not guilty of killing an

innocent teenager is an indication that the criminal justice system does not hold African

Americans’ lives to be as important as the lives of White individuals.

B. Evidence 2 — Michael Brown, an 18-year-old African American teen, was shot and

killed by a White police officer named Darren Wilson. A grand jury decided there was no

evidence that would justify bringing charges against Wilson.i. Response — The fact that a White individual can kill an African American person, let

alone a teenager, and get away with it is why the criminal justice system as time and time again

failed the families of broken hearted African American individuals.

C. Evidence 3 — Breonna Taylor, a Black medical worker, was shot and killed in her

sleep by Louisville police officers during an improper search of her apartment.

i. Response — The brutal and heartbreaking death of Breonna Taylor demonstrates how

careless police officers can be towards the lives of African Americans based on their racial

beliefs.

Pro/Con Section (Problem/Solution Essays — Solution Section Only)

OPP1: The cost of new education policies will lead to taxpayer money having to be utilized,

ultimately resulting in the significant increase in taxes.

S1: Within the education system, grades K-12 will have curriculum implemented to teach proper

morals in regards to how to avoid racial actions.

A. Evidence 1 — Racism-neutral and racism-invasive approaches to studying racial

disparities by centering current research that makes visible the normalized facets of racism in

K–12 schools have been conducted.

i. Response — Studying racial disparities within K-12 grade will allow children to have

an upbringing with the moral ideas regarding racial issues.

B. Evidence 2 — Research indicated that bringing light to racism’s permanence and

significance in the lives of students of color can be extremely beneficial to children’s upbringing.

i. Response — This research is important due to the fact that as children grow to learn

about how racism affects a student of color life, they will be aware of the fact of how wrong

racism is.OPP2: With implementing a curriculum to educate K-12 students on racial issues and morals

against racism, there will be less of a focus on core subjects such as math and english.

S2: College and universities will require mandatory classes to fulfill GE requirements to be taken

on courses discussing the history of racism, along with the other mandatory classes such as

english and math.

A. Evidence 1 — Educational programs are in the process of being designed to include

mandatory courses which discuss various intersections of oppression in different societies.

i. Response — This evidence is extremely beneficial due to the fact that the educational

programs will require the courses to be taken, rather than provide them as an elective.

B. Evidence 2 — Rather than offering a special-focus course, colleges and universities

need to move away from short version curriculum and fully provide integrated subject matter.

i. Response — Providing a full integrated subject matter will allow students to obtain a

better understanding of how the history of racism has impacted African Americans within their

lives.

OPP3 : Mandatory training for employees regarding the awareness of racism in the workforce,

the expenses for the employees will increase rather than gain revenue.

S3: Having mandatory training will allow individuals to become more aware of how racism is

not tolerated within the workforce.

A. Evidence 1 — In the workplace, racism most often manifests itself through

microaggressions, which are defined as indirect, subtle or even unintentional acts of

discrimination against members of a marginalized group.etter understanding of how

to manage racism within the workforce, as well as become knowledgeable that racism isn’t

acceptable in the workplace.

B. Evidence 2 — Research has shown that it is important to create a space where people

feel safe to have honest conversations where nobody feels singled out or different.

i. Response — This research is important because it shows how beneficial the mandatory

training will be in providing the safe space, while knowing how to deal with racism in the

workforce.

CONCLUSION

Now that the educational policies have been implemented within all aspects of society, being a

black man walking the street at night is no longer seen as a targeted individual. School systems

from K-12th grade have integrated the education regarding how African Americans were and

still are treated in the United States. The colleges and universities require a GE to be taken

regarding the history of racism, as well as the workplace having to provide mandatory training

on how racism is not acceptable. These mandated policies allow you to be an individual who is

free to live their lives without a constant target upon their back. As a black man, you no longer

have to fear for your life every time you are approached by an officer, or a racist, due to the fact

that there are now policies which have educated individuals on how racism is not tolerated

within society

Works Cited

Alexander, M., et al. “Racism and Police Brutality in America.” Journal of African American

Studies, Springer US, 1 Jan. 1970, Doi:10.1054/13227591.2020.1764221.

Bleich, Sarah. “Discrimination in the United States: Experiences of Black Americans.”

Discrimination in the United States, 2019, Doi:10.1090/13577961.2020.1913411.

Causadias, Jose. “Racial Discrimination in the United States: A National Health Crisis That

Demands a National Health Solution.” Racial Discrimination in the United States,

2019, Doi:10.1570/14567581.2020.1230781.

Feagin, Joe, and Zinobia Bennefield. “Systemic Racism and U.S. Health Care.” Social Science &

Medicine, Pergamon, 6 Feb. 2014, Doi:10.5680/14456576.2020.1819181.

Krieger, Nancy. “The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) from the American Public

Health Association (APHA) Publications.” American Public Health Association

(APHA) Publications, 2020, Doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305886.

Lavalley, Ryan. “Occupation, Injustice, and Anti-Black Racism in the United States of

America.” Taylor & Francis, 2020, Doi:10.1080/14427591.2020.1810111.

Schwartz, Stephen A. “Police Brutality and Racism in America.” Explore (New York, N.Y.),

Published by Elsevier Inc., 2020, Doi:10.1800/14527581.2020.1819115

Williamson, Vanessa, et al. “Black Lives Matter: Evidence That Police-Caused Deaths Predict

Protest Activity: Perspectives on Politics.” Cambridge Core, Cambridge

University Press, 16 May 2018, Doi:10.1890/14785991.2020.1810111.

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