Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.
Field, A. P. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
In a correlational study, we look at whether or not two variables are related, not necessarily what caused them. Suppose you found a strong correlation between two variables. How would you propose to a colleague that you could investigate if there was a cause and effect? An experimental design would allow the researcher to have the most control over exposure to the treatment which would be the independent variable. Researchers use a correlational research design to measure 2 or more variables to investigate the extent to which the variables are related (Seeram, 2019). The researcher should attempt to understand and assess the statistical relationship between the two variables without any type external or internal influences. A correlation coefficient which is a mathematical measure of the relation between two data sets would entice further investigative research into a experimental design (Mitchell, 1985). Correlation is useful for describing and establishing the statistical significance of the comovement of two variables (Mellinger & Hanson, 2017). If there is a strong correlation between two variables, I would propose investigating a cause and effect relationship through an experimental design.
In my own law enforcement experience I would relate the investigative finding between the correlation of two variables from two different data sets to writing an affidavit for an arrest warrant. Like a researcher who experiences a correlation, a law enforcement officer has more than reasonable suspicion when he or she collects a fingerprint from a crime scene that matches a suspect. Although a fingerprint match was obtained, further investigative research would be required such as processing a search warrant for the criminal instrument and identifying witnesses. Just like quantitative research, all the evidence needs to flow with the results derived from a totality of evidence involved.
This would allow the researcher to measure the outcome or the dependent variable to see if there is a cause and effect relationship. Overall, experimental designs have the purpose of identifying this type of relationship.
Another example from a law enforcement perspective of correlation is the use of informants. We have to measure the information and test if the information is credible and reliable for the purpose of employing further investigative assets and resources. If an informant provides information, it is our job as investigators to test the information through corroborative efforts. If the information proves correctly then the informant is deemed reliable and credible. Reliability refers to the consistency, stability, or repeatability of results when a particular measurement procedure or instrument is used (Mellinger & Hanson, 2017).
However, if the information provided is unsubstantiated then we attempt to understand the true intention of the information. It is possible, for example, to obtain consistent but wrong or misleading measurements.
From a Christian worldview perspective, aspects of Scripture that are necessarily independent within a naturalistic world view, such as the structure of the Wheel or the correlation between the sixty-six chapters of Isaiah are found to be united by highly correlated word distributions which adds value to the absolute scientific proof of God’s divine design of His Holy Word (Gareiou & Zervas, 2018).